Autologous stem cells (adult) are derived from the patient’s own blood, bone marrow or adipose (fat). Autologous adult stem cells have the ability to manufacture all blood cells (red and white) and provide the needed stem cells to repair tissues and organs of the body. They are found in bone marrow that continually replenishes older blood, with new cells.
An Autologous (adult) stem cell transplant is the infusion of stem cells, from your own bodies’ stores that are concentrated and replace into your body. A stem cell transplant can help your body make enough healthy white blood cells, red blood cells or platelets, and reduce your risk of life-threatening infections, anemia, bleeding, aids in
Autologous Stem Cells are broken down into specific cell line types based on categories of adult, autologous cells. ICMS defines cell lines by their common embryonic origin, state of differentiation, and cell types that can be produced by differentiation.
Mesechymal Stem Cells (MSCs): A multipotent stem cell (GLSC) that is self-renewing and adherent, which make up a very small fraction of the marrow stroma. These non-hematopoietic stromal cells are usually harvested from a patient’s bone marrow or other tissues of mesodermal origin (fat, joint synovium, dental pulp, etc…).[1-13] They can be isolated based on adherence and can be culture expanded in vitro. These cells may differentiate into various inflammatory issues and provides stem cells for the repair of damaged tissues and organs. mesenchyme-derived cell types. They generally do not circulate in the peripheral blood, but rather are resident in the mesenchymal tissues they serve.
Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC’s): A multipotent stem cell (GLSC) that is self-renewing and non-adherent. This stem cell gives rise to all blood types (including myeloid and lymphoid lineages) and is usually derived from either the patient’s bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood. They can be isolated with centrifugation or antibody selection and can be culture expanded in vitro (usually only in the presence of other marrow stromal cells, in particular MSCs). These cells can circulate in the peripheral blood.
Neural Stem Cell (NSC): A multipotent stem cell (GLSC) found in adult neural tissue that can give rise to neurons and glial (supporting) cells. These cells do not circulate in the peripheral blood, but serve their resident tissues.
Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC): A multipotent stem cell (GLSC) found in bone marrow that participates in vasculogenesis. These cells do circulate in the peripheral blood in response to vascular injury.
Epithelial Stem Cell (ESC): A multipotent stem cell (GLSC) that resides in the dermis and is controlled by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.[17-20] This cell gives rise to new dermal tissue and other tissues of epithelial origin. These cells are resident in the tissues they serve.
Very Small Embryonic Like Cell (VSEL): A totipotent stem cell (TSC) that resides in the bone marrow and also circulates in the peripheral blood during times of tissue injury.[21-23]
More specific descriptors (phenotype and genotype) of different cell populations produced by a specific cell culture process are possible, but often problematic. As an example, cell surface markers are variable even with the same stem cell line. For example, mesenchymal stem cells have variable markers with very few markers being generally agreed upon as likely MSC specific.[24-29] HSC’s are better defined by cell surface markers (usually CD34+), but CD34- HSC’s have been identified. VSEL’s can be identified by cell surface markers (usually CXCR4+ Sca-1+ Lin− CD45−, expressing SSEA – 1/4, Oct – 4 and Nanog). EPC’s and ESC’s are less well defined by markers. In addition, new stem cell surface markers to assay are still being discovered. Even genetic profiling is difficult as a definitive identification tool, as different levels of gene expression are also seen within the same stem cell line.. In addition, many adult cells have paracrine functions that would be difficult to assay.[32-37]